Submitted By Dr. Mario Villarino, Texas AgriLife Extension Agent for Agriculture and Natural Resources, Hopkins County, [email protected]
Getting or keeping cows in proper body condition throughout the winter can optimize pregnancy rates the following season. Cows with proper body condition scores at calving are more likely to breed back and produce healthy calves in the future. Proper nutrition and supplementation are two keys to keeping cows in good shape.
Two and three year-old cows should have a body condition score of 6 or better at calving. Cows 4-years-old and older should be in a body condition score of 5 or greater at calving. Cows with a body condition score of 5 should display abundant muscle tissue. Ribs are noticeable but overall fat cover is lacking. Hooks and pins are less obvious and hips and backbone are slightly rounded versus a sharp appearance. A body condition score of 6 represents cows that are ideal at calving. Ribs are covered completely with fat and beginning to cover the rump, and muscle tissue is at its greatest.
Hay should be tested for nutritional quality, which will give producers the necessary information to help determine supplementation requirements. Any supplementation plan should be based on three primary criteria – the nutrient requirements of the animal, the quality of available hay or roughage, and the current condition of the cows.
Winter supplementation will depend greatly on what stage of production the cow is in. Lactating cows require different amounts of supplementation than dry cows, those pregnant but not nursing a calf. When evaluating pasture or hay, consider the nutrient requirements of the cow, For example, to maintain its body condition, a lactating cow would require hay that is about 11.5% protein and 62-63% total digestible nutrients, or TDN. A dry cow in late gestation would need about 8% protein and 55% TDN.
Producers should select supplements based on the cost per unit of nutrient needed. Cubes are a common supplement used by many producers. If both energy and protein supplementation are needed, a 20% cube would likely be most cost effective. However, if only a protein supplement is needed, then a 40% cube is more cost effective.
Producers should start slow and build up with supplements, such as concentrates and grains, because cows are designed to consume grasses. It’s also important to feed them supplements consistently each day to avoid digestive problems such as acidosis, which can lead to founder, foot abscesses, damage to the rumen lining damage, or death. Start feeding no more than 2 pounds of supplement per cow per day and slowly building up from there.
Producers should watch manure patties to monitor cows’ protein intake. If patties look like they are stacking up and are firm, that tells us we need more protein supplement. A 40% cube is a good concentrated supplement source of protein. Generally speaking, if cows are in good condition then 1-1.5 pounds of a 40% cube or something similar is a good place to start for dry cows; 2-3 pounds per day would likely be needed for wet cows. If cows also need energy, then something like a 20% cube could be a good option. With average quality hay, a common feeding rate for dry cows would be about 2-3 pounds per day per cow or 4-6 pounds for wet cows.
Feeding amounts really depend on hay quality and other factors, so for more information it is recommend visiting with a beef cattle nutritionist or an AgriLife Extension beef cattle specialist.